Die Absicherung des Fremdwährungsrisikos einer festen Verpflichtung kann sowohl als Absicherung des beizulegenden Zeitwertes als auch als Absicherung von Zahlungsströmen bilanziert werden. Eine Put-Option kann nicht mehr wert sein als der Barwert des Ausübungspreises. The Tree of Jesse has also been removed. Der Effektivzins ist der Zinssatz, der die erwarteten zukünftigen Zahlungsströme über die erwartete Laufzeit des Finanzinstruments exakt auf den Nettobuchwert des finanziellen Vermögenswertes oder der Verbindlichkeit abzinst. The word Antiphonary had in the earlier Middle Ages sometimes a more general, sometimes a more restricted meaning.
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Kristin Sobania Germany Local time: German PRO pts in category: Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer agree. Login to enter a peer comment or grade. English, German PRO pts in category: Another separate volume is the "Vesperal", which contains also the Office of Compline ; and of the "Vesperal" a further compendium has been issued, entitled "Epitome ex Vesperali Romano".
All the above volumes are in the Ratisbon edition. Associated somewhat in scope with the "Antiphonarium" is the "Directorium Chorii", which has been described as furnishing the ground plan for the antiphonary, inasmuch as it gives or indicates all the music of the chants except the responsories after the Lessons , the tones of the psalms, the brief responsories, the " Venite Exsultemus ", the " Te Deum ", Litanies etc. The text of all the psalms, the full melody of the hymns, and the new feasts were added to the "official edition" of the "Directorium" in The word Antiphonary does not therefore clearly describe the contents of the volume or volumes thus entitled, in which are found many chants other than the antiphon technically so called , such as hymns, responsories, versicles, and responses, psalms, the " Te Deum ", the "Venite Adoremus", and so forth.
The expression "antiphonal chant" would, however, comprise all these different kinds of texts and chants, since they are so constructed as to be sung alternately by the two divisions of the liturgical choir; and in this sense the word Antiphonary would be sufficiently inclusive in its implication.
It may be said, then, that these two books receive the names "Antiphonarium" and "Graduale" from the technical name of the most important chants included in them. Fundamentally all the chants, whether of the Mass or of the Divine Office, are sung antiphonally, and might, with etymological propriety, be comprised in the one general musical title of "Antiphonary".
The plainsong melodies found in the Roman antiphonary and the "Graduale" have received the general title of " Gregorian Chant ", in honour of pope Gregory the Great , to whom a tradition, supported by internal and external evidence, ascribes the work of revising and collecting into the various texts and chants of the liturgy.
The importance of the Gregorian Antiphonary is found in the enduring stamp it impressed on the Roman liturgy. Other popes gave, a medieval writer assures us, attention to the chants; and he specifies St. John I and Boniface II. It is true, also, that the chants used at Milan were styled, in honour of St. But it is not known whether any collection of the chants had been made before that of St. Gregory, concerning which his ninth-century biographer, John the Deacon, wrote: Antiphonarium centonem … compilavit.
The authentic antiphonary mentioned by the biographer has not as yet been found. What was its character? What is meant by cento? In the century in which John the Deacon wrote his life of the Saint, a cento meant the literary feat of constructing a coherent poem out of scattered excerpts from an ancient author, in such wise, for example, as to make the verses of Virgil sing the mystery of the Epiphany.
The work, then, of St. Gregory was a musical cento, a compilation centonem … compilavit of pre-existing material into a coherent and well-ordered whole. This does not necessarily imply that the musical centonization of the melodies was the special and original work of the Saint, as the practice of constructing new melodies from separate portions of older ones had already been in vogue two or three centuries earlier than his day.
But is it clear that the cento was one of melodies as well as of texts? In answer it might indeed by said that in the earliest ages of the Church the chants must have been so very simple in form that they could easily be committed to memory; and that most of the subsequently developed antiphonal melodies could be reduced to a much smaller number of types, or typical melodies, and could thus also be memorized.
And yet many [ who? Gregory's time had never possessed a musical notation, had never been committed to writing. What made his antiphonary so very useful to chanters as John the Deacon esteemed it was probably his careful presentation of a revised text with a revised melody, written either in the characters used by the ancient authors as set down in Boethius or in neumatic notation. We know that St. Augustine, sent to England by the great Pope, carried with him a copy of the precious antiphonary, and founded at Canterbury a flourishing school of singing.
That this book was the Gregorian antiphonary is clear from the testimony of Egbert, Bishop of York , who in his "De Institutione Catholicâ" speaks of the "Antiphonarium" and "Missale" which the "blessed Gregory … sent to us by our teacher, blessed Augustine". It is impossible to trace here the progress of the Gregorian antiphonary throughout Europe, which resulted finally in the fact that the liturgy of Western Europe, with a very few exceptions, finds itself based fundamentally on the work of St.
Briefly, the next highly important step in the history of the antiphonary was its introduction into some dioceses of France where the liturgy had been Gallican , with ceremonies related to those of Milan and with chants developed by newer melodies. From the year may be dated the change in favour of the Roman liturgy.
Chrodegang , Bishop of Metz , on his return from an embassy to Rome, introduced the Roman liturgy into his diocese and founded the Chant School of Metz. Subsequently, under Charlemagne , French monks went to Rome to study the Gregorian tradition there, and some Roman teachers visited France. The interesting story of Ekkehard concerning Petrus and Romanus is not now credited, but a certain Petrus, according to Notker , was sent to Rome by Charlemagne and at the Abbey of St.
Gall trained the monks in the Roman style. Besides Metz and St. Gall, other important schools of chant were founded at Rouen and Soissons.
In the course of time new melodies were added, at first characterized by the simplicity of the older tradition, but gradually becoming more free in extended intervals.
With respect to German manuscripts, the earliest are found in a style of neumatic notation different from that of St. Gall, while the St. Gall manuscripts are derived not directly from the Italian but from the Irish-Anglo-Saxon.
It is probable that before the tenth and eleventh centuries at which period the St. Gall notation began to triumph in the German churches the Irish and English missionaries brought with them the notation of the English antiphonary. It would take too much space to record here the multiplication of antiphonaries and their gradual deterioration, both in text and in chant, from the Roman standard. The school of Metz began the process early. Commissioned by Louis the Pious to compile a "Graduale" and antiphonary, the priest Amalarius of Metz found a copy of the Roman antiphonary in the monastery of Corbie , and placed in his own compilation an M when he followed the Metz antiphonary, R when he followed the Roman, and an I C asking Indulgence and Charity when he followed his own ideas.
His changes in the "Graduale" were few; in the antiphonary, many. Part of the revision which, together with Elisagarus , he made in the responsories as against the Roman method, were finally adopted in the Roman antiphonary. In the twelfth century the commission established by St. Bernard to revise the antiphonaries of Citeaux criticized with undue severity the work of Amalarius and Elisagarus and withal produced a faulty antiphonary for the Cistercian Order.
The multiplication of antiphonaries, the differences in style of notation, the variations in melody and occasionally in text, need not be further described here.